Microprocessors III

Microprocessors III

The 80386 Microprocessor : Software Model, memory address space, data organisation, data types, registers and memory segmentation in the real address mode, real mode instructions. Real interrupts.

The 80386 Protected Virtual Address Mode: Register model, memory management, address translation, segmentation and segment descriptor table, segment selectors and descriptors, protection model, data access and control transfer, Multi tasking, task state segment and task switches. I / O level protection , paging, protected mode interrupts and exceptions. their priorities, and interrupt / exception transfer methods. Virtual 86 mode of operation. Protected mode specific instructions.

The 80386 signal interface: Bus states, pipelined and non pipelined bus cycles, memory and I / O interfaces, cache memory concepts, cache architectures, Direct mapped, two way set associative cache, cache coherency, Typical cache controller and its operating system concepts. Virtual memory concepts, single tasking and multi tasking concepts, requirements of protection in multitasking applications. Usage in a cache memory subsystem.

The Industry Standard bus Architecture: Introduction to 8 and 16 bit transfers. ISA interrupt subsystem, 82C59A usage and cascading of two 82C59A devices, The IRQ-2 redirect, shareable interrupts, NMI, DMA review, DMA transfer modes of the 8237A controller, ISA DMA subsystem, DMA bus cycle, DMAC addressing capability, addressing local bus memory, ISA bus master capability, bus masters and DRAM refresh. The ISA real time clock and configuration RAM, ISA timer.

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THE SYSTEMS APPROACH : Background , reasons for adopting systems approach. Using systems approach for problem solving, and information systems design, Determining the scope and structure of a system.

INFORMATION SYSTEM : Classification , transaction Processing systems , OLTP , Decision support systems , Management information systems.

SSAD : Structured systems development life cycle – Preliminary investigation – information gathering – Structured System Analysis – Structured system design – Implementation – Testing a nd Maintenance.

STRUCTURED SYSTEM ANALYSIS : Data flow analysis ,DFD ,Data Dictionaries , Decision trees , Structured English.

STRUCTURED DESIGN : Analysis of input ,output and control . Data modelling – Files and database design.

DESIGN TOOLS : Logical design ,physical design , study of design tools ,CASE methodology. Verification and validation ,software reliability.

IMPLEMENTATION : Selection of Hardware and Software.Implications to multi -user ,networked ,client server ,enterprise – wide environments.

MAINTENANCE : need for maintenance ,corrective , adaptive and enhansive maintenance. Preventive maintenance . Recovery procedures. Reverse engineering. Fine tuning.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION : figure of merits ,performance monitors ,bench marking

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· Nature and significance of economics, science, engineering, technology and their relationship with economic development, appropriate technology for developing countries.

· Demand, supply, elasticity of demand and supply, Competition: monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition, creating categories of monopoly organisation, price determination under perfect competition and monopoly, price discrimination, equilibrium of firm under competition and monopoly.

· Functions of money, supply & demand for money, money price level & inflation, black money, meaning, magnitude & consequences.

· Functions of Commercial banks, multiple credit creation, banking system in India, shortcomings & improvements.

· Central banking: function of central banking illustrated with reference to RBI, monetary policy making, objectives and features.

· Sources of public revenue, principles of taxation, direct and indirect taxes, distribution of incidence, tax structures, reform of tax system

· Theory of international trade, balance of trade and payment, theory of protection, tariffs and subsidies. foreign exchange control, devaluation

· New economic policy: Liberalization, extending privatization, globalization, and market friendly state, export -led growth.

· Causes of underdevelopment, determinants of economic development, economic and non-economic factors, stages of growth, strategy of development, big push , balanced & unbalanced, critical minimum effort strategy, necessity & type of economic planning.

· Nature of planning, decision making process, management by objectives.

· Communication process, media channels and barriers to effective communication.

· Maslow, Herzberg and Macgregor’s theory of motivation. McClelland’s achievement motivation, Blanchard’s situational leadership theory.

· Production Management.

· Production planning and control, work study, materials management.

· Preventive maintenance, Quality control, Total quality management, Quality Circles.

· Need for good cost accounting system, cost control techniques of financial control, financial statements, financial ratios,break-even analysis, budgeting and budgetary control.

· Marketing functions. Management of sales and advertising marketing research.

· Human Resource management – selection, training and appraisal and compensation administration.

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Basic Concepts: Purpose of DBS, data obstruction, data models, instances and schemes, data independence, DDL, DML, DB manager, DB administrator, DB users, database system architecture.

Entity Relationship Model: Entity & entity sets, relationships & relationship sets, attributes, mapping constants, keys, ER diagram, generalization, aggregation.

Relational Model: Relational data structure, architecture, data structure, data manipulation, embedded SQL, external level, internal level, relational algebra, relational calculus, SQL, QBE, integrity constants, normalization, indexing & hashing.

Crash Recovery: Failure verification, storage hierarchy, transaction model, log-based recovery, buffer management, and checkpoints.

Concurrency Control: Schedules, serializability, log based protocols. Transaction Recovery: Storage model, recovery from transaction failure, deadlock handling.

Security & Integrity: Security & integrity violation, authorization & views, security systems in SQL, encryption.

Heiracheal Model: Architecture, data structure, external level, data manipulation, internal level, and logical databases.

Network Model: Architecture, data structure, external level, and data manipulation. Selection of DBMS. Introduction to OODB, distributed DB, temporal DB, and active DB.

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Overview of microcomputer system, Hardware and Software principles.

Introduction to single chip microprocessor Intel MCS51 family: Architectural and operational features, instruction set , timings, machine cycles, interrupt structures and priorities, internal timer / counter, serial interface. connection of external memory, power saving modes, EPROM programming for EPROM versions

Architecture and organization of 8086/8088 microprocessor: Study of instructi on set, assembly language programming, introduction to mixed language programming using C and assembly languages.8086 minimum and maximum mode operation, timing diagrams, 8288 bus controller.8086 interrupt structure. Memory system design for 8086 Interface of dynamic read/write memory, timing for memory interfacing, connection of I/O controllers,chips:8255,8259,UART 8250 programmable DMA 8237, data communications, EIA RS-232C & IEEE 488, error detection & correction–parity &cyclic redundancy check

The 8087 Co- Processor: Study of architecture of 8087 co-processor, host & 8087 interface, assembly language programming for 8086-8087 interface

Introduction to multi processors systems: Multiprocessor configurations, Study of 8289 bus arbiter, deign of 8086 based multi processors systems( without timing considerations)

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Linear Application of OP-AMP: Inverting and Non-inverting, Summing amplifier, Differentiator, Integrator. Adder, Subtractor, Instrumentation amplifier, Voltage follower, V-I , I-V Converter, Precision Rectifiers, Peak Detectors, Clipper, Clamper, Sample/Hold, Log, Antilog, Multiplier, Gyrator.

Voltage Regulators: Specification, Functional Block diagram and applications of 723, 3T regulator ICs like 78xx series and LM317. Principles and working of switching mode regulator.

Timer IC 555: 555 Timer Functional Diagram and Specifications, Application as Monostable, Astable, Bistable, Pulse width modulator. 7107 block diagram, operational details. 7217 a 4-digit Counter, block diagram and operational detai ls.

Power Control ICs : Temperature control and small d.c. motor speed regulation by ICs like SL440, PA436, CA3059 – their block diagram and operational details.

Basic Digital Circuits: Basic operation of gates, Noise margin, Transfer characteristics, Propagation delay and Fan out, Propagation delay of the following – CMOS inverter, TTL gates, ECL circuits. Comparison and interfacing of above logic families.

Combinational Digital Circuits: Functional logic diagram of following ICs their working and applications. Standard gate ICs, Digital Comparator, Decoder – Demultiplexer, Multiplexer, Encoder and their applications. Sequential Circuits & Systems: Latch, Clocked SR flip-flop, JK, T, D type flip-flop, Asynchronous counters including design, Synchronous counters including design.

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Introduction to system programs and system programming, review of different System programs such as assemblers, loaders, linkers, compilers, interpreters, operating systems, device drivers etc. Elements of assembly language programming, overview of assembly process, design of one-pass and two pass assemblers, macros and macro processors, design of a macro pre-processor, implementation of macro assembler. Loader schemes, linking schemes, an absolute loader and direct link loader.


· Introduction to compilers, structure of a compiler, phases of compilation, such as Lexical analysis, code generation, code optimization, table management.

· Implementation aspects of programming language constructs such as data elements, Declarations, binding attributes to names, in built data structures such as arrays, records, sets, strings, expression evaluation, statements of different types, parameter passing (call by reference, value, name), storage management, recursion.

· Design of lexical analyzer.

· Basic parsing techniques such as shift reduce parsing, operator-precedence parsing,

· Top-down parsing, bottom-up parsing.

· Symbol tables: Contents, data structures, representation of scope.

· Syntax directed translation.

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Introduction to history of operating systems : Early batch systems, multiprogramming, timesharing, distributed O.S and multiprocessor O.S. Basic concepts: Processes, files, system calls, shell, layered structure v/s monolithic structure of O.S.

Processes : Process model, process states, process hierarchies, implementation of processes, data structures used such as process table, PCB, creation of processes, context switching, exit of processes.

Interprocess communication: Race conditions, critical sections, problems of mutual exclusion, Peterson’s solutions, producerconsumer problem, semaphores, every counters, monitors, message passing.

Process scheduling: Objectives, preemptives v/s non-preemptives scheduling, comparative assessment of different algorithms such as round robin, priority based scheduling, FCFS, SJF, multiple queues with feedback.

Memory management : Multiprogramming with fixed partition, variable partitions, virtual memory, paging, demand paging, design and implementation issues in paging such as page tables, inverted page tables, page replacement algorithms, page fault handling, working set model, local v/s global allocation, page size, segmentation, segmentation with paging.

File systems : File types, attributes, access and security, file operations, directory structures, path names, directory operations, implementation of file systems, implementation of file and file operation calls, implementation of directories, sharing of files, disk space management, block allocation, free space management.

Deadlocks : Conditions, modeling, detection and recovery, deadlock avoidance, deadlock presentation.

Case studies : Unix : Implementation of processes, memory model, file systems, deadlock handling, Strategies, scheduling, IPC, system calls.

WINDOWS NT: Layered structure, interopretability. Distributed Systems : Introduction to H/W and S/W concepts in distributed systems, network operating systems and NFS, NFS architecture and protocol, client-server model, distributed file systems, RPC- Basic operations, parameter passing, RPC schematics in presence of failures, threads and thread packages.

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Introduction: Application areas, display devices and hard copy devices, interactive input devices, display processors, co-ordinate systems, vector generation.

Raster Algorithms: Line drawing algorithms — DDA and Bresenham’s algorithm, and aliasing techniques, circle generation algorithm, ellipses and other curves generation, style primitives and display processor interface, area filling-scan line algo, boundary fill and flood fill techniques, text generation and display processor interface.

Geometric transformations in 2D : basic transformations, world, NDC, device and homogeneous co-ordinate systems, composite transformations.

Windowing and clipping: Windowing concepts, window view part transformation algorithms, line clipping algorithms like Cohen-Sutherland and Liang and Barsky, area chipping methods like Sutherland and Holgman.

Segmentation: Segments, segment files, segmented display processor, segment attributes.

Graphics hardware: Display controller, use of DAC and buffer organization.

Introduction to 3-D: 3D co-ordinate system, 3D display techniques, and 3D transformations.

Three-dimensional representations: Modeling polygon and curved surfaces, sweep representations, CSG and B- rep techniques.

3D viewing: Projection methods, viewing transformations, chipping in 3D.

Image synthesis: Hidden line and hidden surface removed techniques like back-face depth buffer method, scan line method, arc subdivision method, ochre methods.

Light and shading: Illumination theory, reflections, textures and surface patterns, shadows, half toning surface shading methods, Gounand shading, Phang shading, Ray tracing.

User interfaces: Interactive input techniques, physical device classification, interactive picture contraction techniques, positioning methods, constraints, grids and field input functions, event handle, design of user interface command language, mean design, output formats.

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Introduction to microprocessors: Features , Programmers model, external & internal organisation. 8085 Architecture: 8085 Architecture & organisation, Instruction cycles, machine cycles and T-states, address decoding techniques, minimum system design, Memory interfacing with timing considerations, clock, reset & buffering circuits 8085 Instruction set: Instruction format, addressing modes, classification of instruction set.

8085 Programming: Assembly language programming:- basic structure, data transfer, arithmetical, logical, transfer of control & miscellaneous instruction types.

Stack & subroutines: Stack operations, limitations, subroutine concepts, parameter passing techniques, subroutine design, delay subroutine design & applications, Re-entrant & recursive subroutines, concept of counters and timers.

I/O data transfer techniques: I/O interface concepts, speed considerations, program controlled I/O, asynchronous & synchronous I/O techniques interrupt driven program controlled I/O, direct memory access data control techniques, handshake signals, concepts of serial communication, matrix keyboard & multiplexed display interface.

Interrupts: Requirements, single level interrupt, multilevel interrupt & vector interrupt system, 8085 interrupt structure and its operation,8259A interrupt controller.

I/O controllers: Features, organisation & operating modes of 8155 multifunction device,8255 programmable peripheral interface, 8254 programmable timer,8237 programmable DMA controller.

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