Introduction to system programs and system programming, review of different System programs such as assemblers, loaders, linkers, compilers, interpreters, operating systems, device drivers etc. Elements of assembly language programming, overview of assembly process, design of one-pass and two pass assemblers, macros and macro processors, design of a macro pre-processor, implementation of macro assembler. Loader schemes, linking schemes, an absolute loader and direct link loader.


· Introduction to compilers, structure of a compiler, phases of compilation, such as Lexical analysis, code generation, code optimization, table management.

· Implementation aspects of programming language constructs such as data elements, Declarations, binding attributes to names, in built data structures such as arrays, records, sets, strings, expression evaluation, statements of different types, parameter passing (call by reference, value, name), storage management, recursion.

· Design of lexical analyzer.

· Basic parsing techniques such as shift reduce parsing, operator-precedence parsing,

· Top-down parsing, bottom-up parsing.

· Symbol tables: Contents, data structures, representation of scope.

· Syntax directed translation.

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