Application of diodes as rectifiers: Filter analysis and specifications of the devices and components required for C, L, LC, CLC & RC filters. Single and double ended clipping circuits, clamping circuits.

Bipolar Junction Transistors: Introduction to biasing, modelling, Derivation and analysis of different types of transistor models, viz. h-parameter model, r-parameter model, hybrid pi model, high frequency model. Analysis of biasing circuits, fixed bias, collector to base bias and voltage divider bias. Calculation of stability factors. Thermal stabilisation and compensation, thermal runaway. Amplification, derivation of expressions for voltage gain, current gain, input impedance and output impedance of CC, CB & CE amplifiers.

Field Effect Transistors: Characteristics and coefficients, biasing circuits for FET amplifiers, AC equivalent circuit of FET. Derivation of expressions for voltage gain and output impedance of CS, CD & CG amplifiers. BJT as a switch Analysis in transient and steady state. Design of CE and CS single stage amplifiers. Designing using data sheets of appropriate components.

Voltage Regulators: Analysis of Zener, Series and shunt type of regulators.

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